四大美人- 杨玉环,杨贵妃,Four Beauties

杨玉环=杨贵妃

Consort Yang was known for being slightly overweight, which was a much sought-after quality at the time. Misinterpretation of quotes describing this in the West has often led to her being described as "obese".

The term "obese", when used to describe Yang Guifei, must not be viewed in its modern context of someone who is extremely overweight. She was often compared and contrasted with Empress Zhao Feiyan, the beautiful wife of Emperor Cheng of Han, because Consort Yang was known for her full build while Empress Zhao was known for her slender build. This led to the Four-character idiom, 燕瘦环肥; pinyin: yàn shòu huán féi, describing the range of the types of beauties.


Lychee was a favorite fruit for Yang, and the emperor had the fruit, which was only grown in southern China, delivered by the imperial messenger service's fast horses, whose riders would take shifts day and night in a Pony Express-like manner, to the capital. (Most historians believe the fruits were delivered from modern Guangdong, but some believe they came from modern Sichuan.)
Consort Yang was also granted use of the Huaqing Pool which had been the exclusive private pool of previous Tang Emperors.

In the following generation, a long poem, "Song of the Everlasting Sorrow" (长恨歌), was written by the poet Bai Juyi describing the Emperor's love for her and perpetual grief at her loss. It became an instant classic, known to and memorized by Chinese schoolchildren far into posterity. The story of Yang Guifei and the poem also became highly popular in Japan and served as sources of inspiration for the classical novel "The Tale of Genji" which begins with the doomed love between an emperor and a consort, Kiritsubo, who is likened to Consort Yang.

A Japanese rumour grew up, telling that Lady Yang had been rescued, escaped to Japan and lived her remaining life there. In Japanese, she is known as Yōkihi.


汉皇重色思倾国,御宇多年求不得。
杨家有女初长成,养在深闺人未识。
天生丽质难自弃,一朝选在君王侧。
回眸一笑百媚生,六宫粉黛无颜色。
春寒赐浴华清池,温泉水滑洗凝脂。
侍儿扶起娇无力,始是新承恩泽时。
云鬓花金步摇,芙蓉帐暖度春宵。
春宵苦短日高起,从此君王不早朝。
承欢侍无闲暇,春从春游夜专夜。
宫佳丽三千人,三千宠爱在一身。
金屋妆成娇侍夜,玉楼宴罢醉和春。
姊妹弟兄皆列土,可怜光彩生门户。
遂令天下父母心,不重生男重生女。
骊宫高处入青云,仙乐风飘处处闻。
缓歌慢舞凝丝竹,尽日君王不足。
渔阳鼓动地来,惊破霓裳羽衣曲。
九重城阙烟尘生,千乘万骑西南行。
翠华摇摇行复止,西出都门百余里。
六军不发奈何,宛转蛾眉马前死。
花钿委地无人收,翠翘金雀玉搔头。
君王掩面救不得,回血泪相和流。
黄埃散漫风萧索,云栈萦登剑阁。
峨嵋山下少人行,旌旗无光日色薄。
蜀江水碧蜀山青,圣主朝朝暮暮情。
行宫见月伤心色,夜雨闻铃肠断声。
天旋日转回龙驭,到此踌躇不能去。
马嵬坡下土中,不见玉颜空死处。
君臣相顾尽霑衣,东望都门信马归。
归来池苑皆依旧,太液芙蓉未央柳。
芙蓉如面柳如眉,对此如何不泪垂。
春风桃李花开,秋雨梧桐叶落时。
西宫南多秋草,叶满阶红不扫。
梨园弟子白发新,椒房阿监青娥老。
夕殿萤飞思悄然,灯挑尽未成眠。
迟迟钟鼓初长夜,耿耿星河欲曙天。
鸳鸯瓦冷霜华重,翡翠衾寒谁与共。
悠悠生死别经年,魂魄不曾来入梦。
临邛士鸿都客,能以精诚致魂魄。
为感君王辗转,遂教方士殷勤觅。
驭气奔如电,升天入地求之遍。
上穷碧落下黄泉,两处茫茫皆不见。
忽闻海上有仙山,山在虚无缥缈间。
玲珑五云起,其中绰约多仙子。
中有一人字太真,雪肤花貌参差是。
金阙西厢叩玉扃,转教小玉报双成。
闻道汉家天子使,九华帐梦魂惊。
揽衣推枕起裴回,珠箔银逦迤开。
半偏新睡觉,花冠不整下堂来。
风吹仙袂飘飖举,犹似霓裳羽衣舞。
玉容寂寞泪阑干,梨花一枝春带雨。
含情凝谢君王,一别音容两渺茫。
昭阳殿里恩爱绝,蓬莱宫中日月长。
回头下人寰处,不见长安见尘雾。
唯将旧物表深情,钿合金钗寄将去。
钗留一股合一扇,钗擘黄金合分钿。
心似金钿坚,天上人间会相见。
临别殷勤重寄词,词中有誓两心知。
七月七日长生殿,夜半无人私语时。
在天愿比翼鸟,在地愿为连理枝。
天长地久有时尽,此恨绵绵期。
长恨歌 作者:白居易






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